POSSIBLE CAUSES OF SEIZURES BY AGE

 

Under each age category (the age when seizures first occurred), the possible causes (etiology) are approximately listed as the most likely first and the least likely cause last.

LESS THAN 1 YEAR OF AGE

Anomaly: hydrocephalus.

Inflammatory:
Infectious - Viral: canine distemper; parasitic; bacterial; fungal
Immune mediated

Metabolic:
Hepatic - portosystemic shunt; Autoimmune thyroiditis (early stage: TgAA
positive); Hypoglycemia; Electrolyte disorders

Toxic: Single or combination vaccines; Lead; Drug related; Other exposures

Trauma: Acute; Delayed

Degenerative: Storage disorders

Primary: Idiopathic Epilepsy ("idiopathic" = cause unknown or undetermined)

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BETWEEN 1 - 5 YEARS OF AGE

Primary: Idiopathic Epilepsy ("idiopathic" = cause unknown or undetermined)

Inflammatory:
Infectious - Viral: canine distemper; parasitic; bacterial; fungal
Immune mediated

Metabolic:
Hepatic - Thyroid dysfunction; portosystemic shunt; Hypoglycemia; Electrolyte disorders

Anomaly: hydrocephalus

Trauma: Acute; Delayed

Toxic: Single or combination vaccines; Lead; Drug related; Other exposures

Neoplasia: Primary; Metastatic

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FIVE YEARS OF AGE or OLDER

Neoplasia: Primary; Metastatic

Metabolic:
Thyroid dysfunction; Hypoglycemia - insulinoma; Hepatic - cirrhosis; Electrolyte disturbances

Vascular:
Focal ischemia - Thromboembolism; vasospasm
Hemorrhage: hypertension; vasculitis

Inflammatory:
Infectious - Viral: canine distemper; parasitic; bacterial; fungal
Immune mediated

Primary: Idiopathic Epilepsy ("idiopathic" = cause unknown or undetermined)

Degenerative

Toxic: Lead; Drug related; Other exposures